– (sage, also called garden sage, or common sage) is a perennial, evergreen subshrub, with woody stems, grayish leaves, and blue to purplish flowers.
– It is a member of the family Lamiaceae and is native to the Mediterranean region, though it has naturalized in many places throughout the world.
Salvia officinalis ( chin. : 鼠尾草)
– It has a long history of medicinal and culinary use, and in modern times as an ornamental garden plant.
– The common name “sage” is also used for a number of related and unrelated species.
– Ancient Egyptians used it as a fertility drug (Bown, 1995).
– In the first century C.E. Greek physician Dioscorides reported that the aqueous decoction of sage stopped bleeding of wounds and cleaned ulcers and sores.
– He also recommended sage juice in warm water for hoarseness and coughs.
– It was used by herbalists externally to treat sprains, swelling, ulcers, and bleeding.
– Internally, a tea made from sage leaves has had a long history of use to treat sore throats and coughs; often by gargling.
– It was also used by herbalists for rheumatism, excessive menstrual bleeding, and to dry up a mother’s milk when nursing was stopped.
– It was particularly noted for strengthening the nervous system, improving memory, and sharpening the senses.
– Sage was officially listed in the United States Pharmacopoeia from 1840 to 1900.
– Sage Tea or infusion of Sage is a valuable agent in the delirium of fevers.
– It has a considerable reputation as a remedy, given in small and often-repeated doses.
– It is highly serviceable as a stimulant tonic in debility of the stomach and weakness of digestion generally. It was for this reason that the Chinese valued it, giving it preference to their own tea.
– It is considered a useful medicine in typhoid fever and beneficial in biliousness and liver complaints, kidney troubles, haemorrhage from the lungs or stomach, for colds in the head as well as sore throat, quinsy, measles, for pains in the joints, lethargy and palsy.
– It has been used to check excessive perspiration in phthisis cases, and is useful as an emmenagogue. A cup of the strong infusion will be found good to relieve nervous headache.
– In Germany, sage tea is also applied topically as a rinse or gargled for inflammations. Sage extract, tincture, and essential oil are all used in prepared medicines for mouth and throat and as gastrointestinal remedies in fluid (e.g., juice) and solid dosage forms (Leung and Foster, 1996; Wichtl and Bisset, 1994).
– Rosmarinic acid contributes to the herb’s anti-inflammatory activity.
– The German Commission E approved internal use for mild gastrointestinal upset and excessive sweating
Antiseptic and antibacterial
– Sage has been used effectively for throat infections, dental abscesses, infected gums and mouth ulcers.
The phenolic acids in sage are particularly potent against Staphylococcus aureus.
– In vitro, sage oil has been shown to be effective against both Escherichia coli and Salmonella species, and against filamentous fungi and yeasts such as Candida albicans.
– Sage also has an astringent action due to its relatively high tannin content and can be used in the treatment of infantile diarrhoea.
– Its antiseptic action is of value where there is intestinal infection.
Reduces muscle tension
– Sage has an anti-spasmodic action which reduces tension in smooth muscle, and it can be used in a steam inhalation for asthma attacks. It is an excellent remedy for helping to remove mucous congestion in the airways and for checking or preventing secondary infection.
– It may be taken as a carminative to reduce griping and other symptoms of indigestion. Its bitter component stimulates upper digestive secretions, intestinal mobility, bile flow, and pancreatic function, while the volatile oil has a carminative and stimulating effect on the digestion.
– There also seems to be a more general relaxant effect, so that the plant is suitable in the treatment of nervousness, excitability and dizziness.
Reduces menopausal symptoms
– It is well documented that sage leaf helps to reduce menopausal sweats. In one study, excessive sweating was induced by pilocarpine.
Sage has a strong anti-hydrotic action, and was a traditional treatment for night sweats in tuberculosis sufferers. Its estrogenic effects may be used to treat some cases of dysmenorrhoea and menstrual irregularity or amenorrhoea and can reduce breast-milk production.
– It is thought that sage is similar to Rosemary in its ability to improve brain function and memory. In a study involving 20 healthy volunteers sage oil caused indicated improvements in word recall and speed of attention.
– Meanwhile the activity of sage and its constituents have been investigated in the search for new drugs for the treatment of Alzheimer’s disease with promising results.
– ESCOP (European Scientific Cooperative on Phytotherapy) indicate its use for inflammations such as stomatitis, gingivitis
– Thujone is GABA and Serotonin (5-HT3) receptor antagonist. It improves mental concentration, attention-span and quickens the senses; hence sage infusion has long been recognized as “thinker’s tea.”
– Three lobe sage (S. triloba) composes flavone called salvigenin. Research studies found that vascular relaxant effect of salvigenin may offer protection from cardiovascular diseases.
– This herb is exceptionally very rich source of several B-complex groups of vitamins, such as folic acid, thiamin, pyridoxine and riboflavin many times higher than the recommended daily levels.
– The herb contains very good amounts of vitamin-A and beta-carotene levels. 100 g dry ground herb provides 5900 IU; about 196% of RDA. Vitamin-A is a powerful natural antioxidant and is essential for night-vision. It is also required for maintaining healthy mucusa and skin. Consumption of natural foods rich in vitamin A known to help the body protect from lung and oral cavity cancers.
– Fresh sage leaves are a good source of antioxidant vitamin, vitamin-C; contain 32.4 or 54% of RDA. Vitamin C helps in the synthesis of structural proteins like collagen. Its adequate levels in the body help maintain integrity of blood vessels, skin, organs, and bones. Regular consumption of foods rich in vitamin-C helps protect from scurvy, develop resistance against infectious agents (boosts immunity) and scavenge harmful, pro-inflammatory free radicals from the human body.
– Sage herb parts, whether fresh or dried, are rich sources of minerals like potassium, zinc, calcium, iron, manganese, copper, and magnesium. Potassium is an important component of cell and body fluids, which helps control heart rate and blood pressure. Manganese is used by the body as a co-factor for the antioxidant enzyme, superoxide dismutase.